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|English language, its place among Indo-European languages|
Artistic methods. Use of words. All the arts try to perform the same sort of task, differing only in methods, which are dictated by the material used. Literature uses those meaningful sounds we call words. There are two ways of using words, one artistic, one non-artistic.There is the meaning that a word has in the dictionary – the denotation, and some associations that the word gained through the constant use – the connotations. The word ’mother’ has connotations: our country, our school.
The writer of literature is much concerned with connotations. But literature has different branches, and some of them exploit words more then others. Thus poetry is the most extreme branch in exploiting the words.
Once upon a time, the only kind of literature that existed was poetry; prose was used merely for jotting down laws and records. With the ancient Greeks poetry had three departments – lyric, dramatic and epic. Lyrical poetry expressed love, hate pity, fear; dramatic poetry – action, plot, human character. Epic poetry had to tell a tale, a narration.
Nowadays the epic turned into the novel; the dramatic poem has become the play, so lyrical poetry is the only kind of poetry left.
What is English literature? English literature is an art that exploits the English language. We must now consider the English language itself and study its appearance and historical phases of its development.
Germanic languages. The history of English language has been reconstructed on the basis of written records of different periods. The earliest texts in English are dated back to 7th c A.D.; the earliest records in other Germanic languages to the 3rd or 4th A.D. But to say where the English language came from one must learn some facts of the prewritten history of the Germanic group.
Certain information about the early stages of English and Germanic history can be found in the works of ancient historians, especially Roman. They contain the description of Germanic tribes, personal names and place-names.
English language belongs to the Germanic group of languages, which is one of the twelve groups of the Indo-European linguistic family. The history of the Germanic group begins with the appearance of what is known as the Proto-Germanic language which split from the Proto-Indo-European tongues between 15th and 10th c. B.C.
The common ancestral (reconstructed) language is called Proto-Indo-European. It probably originated in the area north of the Black Sea. The various subgroups of the Indo-European family appeared during the time of migration and they include:
They include English, the second most spoken language in the world, the most widespread, the language of technology, and the language with the largest vocabulary.
Dutch and German are the closest major languages related to English. And even closer relative is Frisian.
Flemish and Afrikaans are varieties of Dutch while Yiddish is a variety of German. Yiddish is written using the Hebrew script.
Three of the four (mainland) Scandinavian languages belong to this branch: (Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish). Swedish has tones, unusual in European languages. The fourth Scandinavian language, Finnish, belongs to a different family.
Icelandic is the least changed of the Germanic Languages - being close to Old Norse. Another old language is Faroese.
Gothic (Central Europe), Frankish (France), Lombardo (Danube region), Visigoth (Iberian Peninsula) and Vandal (North Africa) are extinct languages from this branch.
German has a system of four cases and three genders for its nouns. Case is the property where a noun takes a different ending depending on its role in a sentence. An example in English would be the forms: lady, lady's, ladies and ladies'. The genders are masculine, feminine and neuter. German has three dialects spoken in northern Germany, southern Germany and Austria, and a very different form spoken in Switzerland.
English has lost gender and case. Only a few words form their plurals like German (ox, oxen and child, children). Most now add an s, having been influenced by Norman French.
One group of Celts moved back to France. Their language became Breton spoken in the Brittany region of France. Breton is closer to Welsh than to French.
Other Celtic languages have became extinct. These include Cornish (Cornwall in England), Gaulish (France), Cumbrian (Wales), Manx (Isle of Man), Pictish (Scotland) and Galatian (spoken in Anatolia by the Galatians mentioned in the Christian New Testament).
Welsh has the word order Verb-Subject-Object in a sentence. Irish has the third oldest literature in Europe (after Greek and Latin).
These languages are all derived from Latin. Latin is one of the most important classical languages. Its alphabet (derived from the Greek alphabet) is used by many languages of the world. Latin was long used by the scientific establishment and the Catholic Church as their means of communication.
Italian and Portuguese are the closest modern major languages to Latin. Spanish has been influenced by Arabic and Basque. French has moved farthest from Latin in pronunciation, only its spelling gives a clue to its origins. French has many Germanic and Celtic influences. Romanian has picked up Slavic influences because it is a Latin Language surrounded by a sea of Slavic speakers. Portuguese and Spanish have been separate for over 1000 years. The most widely spoken of these languages is Spanish. Apart from Spain, it is spoken in most of Latin America (apart from Portuguese speaking Brazil, and a few small countries like Belize and Guyana).
Romansh is a minority language in Switzerland. Ladino was the language spoken by Spain's Jewish population when they were expelled in 1492. Most of them now live in Turkey and Israel. Provincial and Catalan are closely related languages spoken in the south of France and the north-east of Spain, respectively.
Note that Basque (spoken in parts of Spain and France) is not an Indo-European language - in fact it is totally unrelated to any other language of the world.
Galician is a Portuguese dialect with Celtic influences spoken in the north west of Spain. Finally, Moldavian is a dialect of Romanian spoken in the Moldova. Under the Soviets the Moldavians had to use the Cyrillic alphabet. Now they have reverted back to the Latin alphabet.
Apart from Latin, other extinct languages include Dalmatian, Oscan, Faliscan, Sabine and Umbrian.
Latin had three genders and at least six cases for its nouns and a Subject-Object-Verb sentence structure. Most modern Romance languages have only two genders, no cases and a Subject-Verb-Object structure.
In general, the Catholic peoples use the Latin alphabet while the Orthodox use the Cyrillic alphabet which is derived from the Greek. Indeed some of the languages are very similar differing only in the script used (Croatian and Serbian are virtually the same language).
One of the oldest of these languages is Bulgarian. The most important is Russian. Others include Polish, Kashubian (spoken in parts of Poland), Sorbian (spoken in parts of eastern Germany), Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Macedonian, Bosnian, Ukrainian and Byelorussian.
The Slavic languages are famed for their consonant clusters and large number of cases for nouns (up to seven). Macedonian has three definite articles indicating distance; all are suffixes: VOL (ox), VOLOT (the ox), VOLOV (the ox here), VOLON (the ox there).
Lithuanian is one of the oldest of the Indo-European languages. Its study is important in determining the origins and evolution of the family. Lithuanian and Latvian both use the Latin script and have tones. Lithuanian has three numbers: singular, dual and plural.
Prussian is an extinct language from this branch
Greek is one of the oldest Indo-European languages. Mycenaean dates from 1300BC. The Ancient Greek of Homer was written from around 700BC. The major forms were Doric (Sparta), Ionic (Cos), Aeolic (Lesbos), and Attic (Athens). The latter is Classical Greek.
The New Testament of the Christian Bible was written in a form of 1st Century AD Greek called Koine. This developed into the Greek of the Byzantine Empire. Modern Greek has developed from this.
Greek has three genders and four cases for nouns but no form of the verb infinitive. The language has its own script, derived from Phoenician with the addition of symbols for vowels. It is one of the oldest alphabets in the world and has led to the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets. The Greek Alphabet is still used in science and mathematics.
Until the 1970s Greek was a Diglossic language. This means that there were two forms: Katharevoussa used in official documents and news broadcasts and Demotic used in common speech.
The Greek spoken in Cyprus includes many Turkish, Arabic and Venetian words and has a different pronounciation to the official Greek of Greece.
There are two dialects that have been diverging for 1000 years. They are mostly mutually intelligible. Geg is spoken in the north of Albania and Kosovo (Kosova). Tosk is spoken in southern Albania and north west Greece.
Dacian (or Daco-Mysian) and Illyrian are extinct languages from this branch.
All languages in this branch are extinct.
Armenian is spoken in Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh (an enclave in Azerbaijan). The language is rich in consonants and has borrowed much of its vocabulary from Farsi (Iranian). Nouns have 7 cases and the past tense of verbs take an E prefix like Greek.
Two extinct languages from this branch are Thracian (spoken by Spartacus) and Phrygian (spoken in ancient Troy).
The main language of this branch is Farsi (also called Iranian and Persian), the main language of Iran and much of Afghanistan. Kurdish is a close relation. Kurdish is spoken in Turkey, Syria, Iran and Iraq by the Kurds. It is the second largest of the Iranian languages after Farsi. In Turkey it was banned until recently.
Pashto (or Pushtu) is spoken in Afghanistan and parts of north west Pakistan. Baluchi is spoken in the desert regions between Iran, Afganistan and Pakistan. These languages are written in the Nastaliq script, a derivative of Arabic writing. It is interesting that you cannot tell which family a language belongs to by the way it is written.
Ossetian is found in the Caucasus mountains, north of Georgia. Tadzhik is a close relative of Farsi, written in Cyrillic and spoken in Tadzhikistan (of the former USSR) as well as northern Afghanistan.
Avestan is the extinct language of the Zoroastrian religion. Scythian is an extinct language of a warrior people who once lived north of the Black Sea.
Of the modern North Indian languages, Hindi and Urdu are very similar but differ in the script. The Hindi speakers are Hindus and use the Sanskrit writing system called Devanagari (writing of the Gods). Urdu is spoken by the Muslims so uses the Arabic Nastaliq script. These two languages are found in north and central India and Pakistan. Nepali is closely related to Hindi.
HindiIn India most of the states have their own language. These languages either use Devanagari script or a derivation (if the people are Hindus) or the Arabic Nastaliq script (if the people are Muslims).
Bengali (West Bengal as well as Bangladesh), Bhili (Central India), Oriya (in Orissa), Marathi (in Maharashtra), Assamese (in Assam), Punjabi and Lahnda (from the Punjab), Maithili and Maghadi (from Bihar), Kashmiri (Kashmir), Sindhi (the Pakistan province of Sindh - written in Nastaliq), Gujarati (Gujarat in western India), Konkani (in Goa, an ex Portuguese colony, uses the Latin script), Sinhalese (Sri Lanka - uses its own script derived from Pali), Maldivian (Maldives - with its own script).
SinhaleseThe most surprising language in this branch is Romany, the Gypsy's language. Gypsies migrated to Europe from India.
Sanskrit had three genders as has Marathi; most modern Indic languages have two genders; Bengali has none.
The fascinating point about India is that the south Indian languages (like Tamil) are not Indo-European. In other words, Hindi is related to English, Greek and French but is totally unrelated to Tamil. North Indians visiting Madras (in the south) are as baffled by Tamil as a foreigner would be.
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